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          介孔纳米材料未来可期! Promising Future of Mesoporous Nano Materials

          浏览:44 发布日期:2020-07-16

           

          韩国科学技术院在《自然》杂志有发表关于介孔纳米材料的综述,讲述了介孔纳米材料的诞生以及近三十年来的里程碑式的发展,对从事该领域的人员大有帮助。其实,介孔纳米材料的发展大致分为以下三个时期:

          The Korean Academy of Science and Technology has published a review on mesoporous nanomaterials in the journal Nature, describing the birth of mesoporous nanomaterials and the landmark development in the past 30 years, which is of great help to those engaged in this field. In fact, the development of mesoporous nanomaterials can be divided into the following three periods.


           

          第一,介孔纳米材料是从研究沸石(zeolites)诞生。1992年,kresge团队报道了一种模板法,利用该方法制备出了组装有序的介孔分子筛,该分子筛含有均匀、排列规则的孔径(2-50 nm)。后来利用胶束为模板,制备了蜂窝状的具有纳米级孔径的结构高度有序的介孔材料MCM-41

          First, mesoporous nanomaterials were born from the study of zeolites. In 1992, Kresge team reported a template method to prepare ordered mesoporous molecular sieves with uniform and regular pore size (2-50 nm). Later, MCM-41, a highly ordered mesoporous material with nano pore size, was prepared by using micelles as templates.


           

          第二,关键性的进展即开发了软模板法。在1998年,美国加州大学的Gallen D. Stucky团队报道了他们利用聚合物表面活性剂策略,将高度有序的孔径增加到了30 nm,该材料被命名为SBA-15。SBA-15不仅具有更大的孔径,而且还有更厚的孔壁、更高的孔容和水热稳定性,已经成为介孔材料中的一种经典材料。

          Second, the key progress is the development of soft template method. In 1998, Gallen D. Stucky of the University of California reported that they used the polymer surfactant strategy to increase the highly ordered pore size to 30 nm, which was named SBA-15. SBA-15 has not only larger pore size, but also thicker pore wall, higher pore volume and hydrothermal stability, which has become a classic mesoporous material.


           

          第三,另外一个突破性进展即硬模板法的问世。在1999年,Shinae Jun团队报道了硬模板法,利用另外一种固体介孔材料作为模板与前驱体分子共同制备了介孔材料,其方式有些类似于浇铸混凝土管转。该方法有两个必须要求:(1)前驱体必须均匀的渗透到模板的孔中,不能聚集在外表面上;(2)前驱体必须完全转化为所需的产品。

          Third, another breakthrough is the hard template method. In 1999, shinae Jun team reported the hard template method, using another kind of solid mesoporous material as template and precursor molecules to prepare mesoporous materials, which is similar to casting concrete pipe. There are two requirements in this method: (1) the precursor must penetrate into the pores of the template evenly, and cannot gather on the outer surface (2) The precursor must be completely transformed into the desired product.


           

          综上所述,从最开始的沸石研究到后来的软模板法和硬模板法,介孔纳米材料逐渐被人们所了解和关注。如今,介孔纳米材料被广泛的研究和应用,从最开始的石油化工、催化领域,到现在的生物医学领域。其中,最为代表的就是介孔二氧化硅材料,通过不同的合成方法可以制备出各种所需的性状和尺寸,同时其具有良好的生物相容性,也可在人体组织中自降解,因而非常适用于作为药物、基因等载体。

          In conclusion, from the initial study of zeolite to the soft template method and hard template method, mesoporous nanomaterials have been gradually understood and concerned. Nowadays, mesoporous nanomaterials have been widely studied and applied, from the first petrochemical, catalytic fields to biomedical fields. Among them, the most representative is mesoporous silica materials. Through different synthesis methods, various required properties and sizes can be prepared. At the same time, they have good biocompatibility and can also be self degraded in human tissues, so it is very suitable for drug, gene and other carriers.


           

          来源:高分子科学前沿

          Source: Polymer Science Frontier

           

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